"Scented Wood" and "Huanghua Pear"

August 14, 2019

In recent years, with the promulgation and implementation of the national standard "Redwood" (GB/T18107--2000), the name of the wood species of "Xiangzhimu" as a commodity material is familiar to the lovers of redwood. What is the relationship between “Fragrance” and the valuable hardwood that the furniture industry (including the cultural relics collection community) used to call “Huanghua Pear”?

At first, "Xiangzhi" appeared in the Guangzhou wood industry, originally referring to the wood of the unique fragrant yellow sandalwood tree species in China. It is also the name of "soil rosewood" for distinguishing another type of imported wood "sour rosewood". In the Guangdong furniture industry, it is often referred to as “declining wood” (medicinal name “declining”).

Dalbergia odorifera is produced in the low-altitude plains or hilly areas of Hainan Island in China. It is one of the two rare redwood species in China (the other is the Danabergia fusca of Yunnan, which is commonly known as "horn wood". It used to be called "ebony", which is now classified as "black rosewood" in the national standard of "Redwood". Hainan is known as “Pearl” or “Pearl Mother”. The island is located in the main forest area of ​​Hangluo Mountain and Jianfengling. It is also cultivated in Guangdong and southwestern Guangxi.

According to the specimens collected by Mr. Lin Yangsan of Guangdong, the characteristics of the wood are: red and brown to reddish brown, uneven in shade, mixed with dark brown stripes; lustrous wood; spicy aroma (strong aroma after heating in a microwave oven), disappeared for a long time The tube hole has a dark gum (the phenomenon of gum overflow after heating); the axial thin-walled structure is a tube-shaped band and a poly-wing; the surface has a ray pattern; the wave marks are visible; the air-dry density is less than lg/cm3, floating water . (Note: This specimen was obtained from the Guangdong Provincial Forestry Department during the general survey of Hainan timber in the 1960s. The survey was attended by the Institute of Wood Industry of the Chinese Academy of Forestry.)

In the 1960s, the Shanghai arts and crafts industry (such as the four artisans, etc.) used the domestic “flower pear” (that is, Hainan scented rosewood tree wood) to replace the imported “redwood” crafts and high-end furniture. Wood has aroma, so it is also called "fragrant mahogany" according to custom. (Note: Shanghai and Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces refer to "rosewood" as "redwood", and the aroma is called "fragrant redwood", including the current name of the product "Pearl".

In "Wood Science" (published in 1985) and "Chinese Wood Magazine" (published in 1992) edited by Mr. Cheng Junqing, the scented rosewood tree species also uses "Xianghongmu" as the name of the commodity. In the national standard "China's main timber name" (QB/T16734-1997) promulgated and implemented in 1997, the scented rosewood tree species was officially named "Xiangzhimu".

In the furniture industry, the first Shanghai local standard "Redwood Furniture Product Labeling Regulations" (DB31 181-1996) on the definition of "Redwood Furniture" refers to the use of rosewood, eucalyptus, ebony, and wenge The general name for furniture made of rosewood and rosewood (produced in Southeast Asia). In the light industry standard “Dark and expensive hardwood furniture” (QB/T2385-98) drafted by the National Furniture Standardization Center, the fragrant yellow sandalwood tree is called “Yellow Pearwood” for dark and precious hardwood furniture. Alias ​​drop fragrant wood, fragrant mahogany, flower palm, fragrant branch, rosewood mother.

In the process of drafting the "Redwood" national standard, Mr. Yang Jiaxuan has extensively solicited opinions from all parties. Because of the fact that "Hongmu" has become a general term for a class of commercial materials, Guangdong (such as Guangzhou) has Dalbergia. The fact that the wood of the tree species is divided into "sour branches" and "fragrant branches" is adopted. Therefore, the suggestion of Mr. Lin Yangsan is changed to "fragrant redwood" (decorating rosewood) to "fragrant wood" (or "huanghua pear"). So far, in terms of domestic incense sticks, the scented rosewood tree species is the precious hardwood furniture material in the furniture industry, "Huanghua Pear."

Then, whether the imported commercial material "fragrant wood" can be called "yellow pear" in the furniture material? There are several kinds of wood of Dalbergia genus and can be included in the commercial material "fragrant wood"?

1. Regarding the furniture industry (including the collection of old furniture), one of the "Huanghua Pear" mainly refers to the cultural relic furniture in the old furniture collection. Now, except for a small amount of old materials (such as old doors and windows, room beams, etc.), the classical furniture is remodeled. There are no commercial materials available on the timber market (the scented Dalbergia national protected plants have long been banned from felling). Therefore, the purpose of “Huanghua Pear” was changed to “Xiangzhumu” to regulate the name of “Redwood”.

Second, whether the import of "fragrant sticks" can also be called "huanghua pear". In fact, classical furniture and cultural relics experts have long objected to this issue. A few years ago, the author published an article in the "China Timber" magazine for the drafting of the industry standard "Dark-named Hardwood Furniture" (that is, timber species). The article "Redwood" seeks opinions from industry peers and collectors, and has discussed with the cultural relics experts such as Mr. Hu Desheng from the Beijing Palace Museum and Mr. Wang Zhengshu from the Shanghai Museum. It is believed that "Huanghua Pear" is suitable for cultural relics collection and furniture industry for historical reasons. From the perspective of the existing furniture, "Huanghua Pear" is "Hainan Xiangzhi" (declining Dalbergia) should be undoubtedly discussed. For example, the import of "Xiangzhi" collectively referred to as "Huanghua Pear" will inevitably cause controversy.

Third, according to the history book, "Pear Blossoms (cross-toe) Guang (two Guang) Xixi, a flower palm tree, leaves like pears and no real, wood color red purple and delicate texture, can be used as utensils, tables, chairs, texts "," "Peach palm color purple red, slightly fragrant, its pattern has a ghost face, also a kind of raccoon spot, also known as rosewood." However, the author once took the Dalbergia sp. from the Indo-China peninsula and the leaves were sent to Mr. Lin Yangsan of Guangdong Province. The conclusion is that the “Xiangzhi” is not the same species as the Hainan fragrant Dalbergia, because of the name of the botany tree (Latin name). Unknown, tentatively set the name of "Yuexiangzhi" to show the difference. The “fragrant twig” commodity imported in the domestic timber market refers to this kind of wood, namely “Dalbergia sp”.

4. Indian Dalbergia sisso and Dalbergia parviflora produced in India have strong aromas of wood. Southeast Asian countries generally use it as a raw material for making Buddha incense. "class. There are currently no commercial materials available in the domestic timber market.

5. Some wood features of Dalbergia retusa and Dalbergia granadillo produced in Central America are very similar to those of Hainan's "fragrant branch" and have a spicy aroma. I have tried to take this type of wood (commercial name Cocobolo) to distinguish the experienced masters of the mahogany furniture factory, which is considered to be the same kind of wood as the "fragrant branch" produced in Hainan. However, due to the "Redwood" category in the "Redwood" national standard, timber merchants consider that their import prices are expensive and unprofitable, so they are unwilling to develop, such as the timber is also included in the commodity "Scented Wood" Class, then "Scented Wood" one of its tree species will be expanded.

Replacing "Huanghua Pear" with "Xianghua Pear" is not satisfactory in the "Redwood" national standard, but in the long run, this will help to end the chaos of the name of "Huanghua Pear" furniture timber species, and Promote the healthy development of the mahogany furniture industry.


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